Notes to Chapter 12
notes to chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

All the Web addresses included were checked when we went online, but some, inevitably, may have moved or changed.

  1. Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak, "Wanted: Net.Census," Wired, November 1994, 93-94. <back to text>
  1. All of Hoffman's and Novak's papers, plus a comprehensive set of links to other, related research and source material is at the Project 2000 Web site,
    <back to text>
  1. Peter Lewis, "Doubts Are Raised on Actual Number of Internet Users," by New York T imes, August 10, 1994, 1 <back to text>
  1. At <back to text>
  1. At gopher:// <back to text>
  1. The Executive Summary of the CommerceNet/Nielsen study is available on the Web at <back to text>
  1. Donna L. Hoffman, William D. Kalsbeek, and Thomas P. Novak, "Internet Use in the United States: 1995 Baseline Estimates and Preliminary Market Segments," Communications of the ACM, December 1996, special issue on "The Internet@Home." Draft dated April 12, 1996, available on the Web at <back to text>
  1. Nielsen's rebuttal is on its Web site at <back to text>
  1. A comparative study of the various surveys is on Stanford Research International's Web site at <back to text>
  1. Archived at
    <back to text>
  1. Darrell Huff, How to Lie with Statistics (Penguin, 1954), 121. <back to text>
  1. Donna Hoffman and Tom Novak, "New Metrics for New Media: Toward the Development of Web Measurement Standards," World Wide Web Journal 2, no. 1 (winter 1997): 213-46, available on the Web at
    <back to text>
  1. Estimates quoted by Hoffman and Novak from research organizations Bear Sterns and Jupiter. <back to text>
  1. According to market research specialist Jupiter; on the Web at <back to text>
  1. The Anonymizer is at Internet Fast Forward belongs to Privnet, which in 1996 was bought up by PGP, Inc., and is available at<back to text>
  1. You, too, can become an alien abductee by signing up at (this link is no longer active). <back to text>
  1. GVU's Sixth WWW User Survey was conducted via a series of questionnaires available at their Web site from October 10 to November 10, 1996; the results were made available on December 10, 1996. The semiannual surveys began in January 1994, shortly after forms and scripts became available on the Web for the first time. <back to text>
  1. Cynthia Crossen, Tainted Truth: The Manipulation of Fact in America (Simon and Schuster, 1994), 112. <back to text>
  1. GVU's definitions of these terms came from the Advocates for Self-Government. <back to text>


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