Notes to Chapter 5
notes to chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

All the Web addresses included were checked when we went online, but some, inevitably, may have moved or changed.

  1. John Bamford, The Puzzle Palace (Houghton Mifflin, 1982). <back to text>
  1. "Don't Worry, Be Happy: Why Clipper is Good for You," Wired, June 1994, 100. Baker left the NSA in 1995, and became a partner in a Washington, DC, legal firm. <back to text>
  1. Prepared by the Committee to Study National Cryptography Policy, with support from the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, the National Research Council, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Academy of Engineering. A draft copy of the report dated May 30, 1996, is archived at
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  1. More worryingly, the report recommends that Congress "seriously consider legislation that would impose penalties on the use of encrypted communications in interstate commerce with the intent to commit a federal crime." In other words, using encryption on the email planning a kidnapping attempt would aggravate the crime the way using a gun aggravates the crime of robbery. <back to text>
  1. In personal conversation at CFP'94. <back to text>
  1. See "Why Cryptography is Harder than it Looks," by Bruce Schneier ( ), author of Applied Cryptography, and also the "Snake-Oil W arning Signs: Encryption Software to Avoid" FAQ, maintained by Matt Curtin at <back to text>
  1. Personal interview. <back to text>
  1. On June 2, 1994, in an article by John Markoff. <back to text>
  1. The seven included Ronald L. Rivest (co-inventor of the RSA algorithm), Matt Blaze, Michael Wiener, Bruce Schneier, and Whitfield Diffie (co-inventor of public-key cryptography). The letter is archived at <back to text>
  1. Leading John Perry Barlow to comment, "It does seem to me that if you're going to initiate a process that might end freedom in America, you probably need an argument that isn't classified." From "Jackboots on the Infobahn," which appeared in Wired, April, 1994, and is archived at <back to text>
  1. A complete collection of Denning's writings on the subject are on her "Cryptography Project" Web site at <back to text>
  1. Froomkin's work, along with many useful links, is on his Web site at
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  1. Anderson's Web site is at
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  1. The algorithms are, of course, already available electronically on the world's BBSs and FTP sites, though not always all together in one place. <back to text>
  1. A hash function is a process that takes a message of any size and computes a fixed- length digest; if it's hard to reverse this process the hash function can be used to verify that the attached message hasn't been tampered with. <back to text>
  1. All of the papers relating to the Bernstein case are available at and also at the eff's site ( ) by following the links to the cryptography archive. At the beginning of 1997, Bernstein's legal team sought a ruling that the decision would stand in the face of the Clinton administration's announcement at the end of 1996 that jurisdiction over the export laws will shift to the Department of Commerce. Legal updates are at <back to text>
  1. These are S. 1726 (Burns) and S. 1587 (Leahy, with support from Burns and several others, including later presidential candidate Bob Dole). A good place to start for information on legislative measures is the Center for Democracy and Technology Web site, at <back to text>
  1. 18. Matt Blaze, "My Life as an International Arms Courier," available via FTP from <back to text>
  1. Chaum's seminal article on the subject, "Achieving Electronic Privacy," appeared in Scientific American, August 1992; it is archived on the Web on the Digicash site at Chaum left Digicash in early 1997.
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  1. In September 1993, at the European Computers, Freedom, and Privacy Conference in London, a hostile questioner complained to Chaum and the rest of a panel on anonymity that all the smart card systems so far invented had been cracked. John Gilmore's reply: "It is my understanding that paper has also been cracked." <back to text>
  1. A. Michael Froomkin, "It Came from Planet Clipper: The Battle over Cryptographic Key 'Escrow'," his interpretation of "the Interagency Working Group's suggestion that access to the PKI might be denied to users of unescrowed cryptography." Published by University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1996, 15, or at
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  1. Draft paper available at <back to text>
  1. Timothy C. May, "Introduction to BlackNet," in High Noon on the Electronic Frontier: Conceptual Issues in Cyberspace, edited by Peter Ludlow (MIT Press, 1996), 241-43.
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  1. Timothy C. May, "BlackNet Worries," in Ludlow, ed., High Noon on the Electronic Frontier, 245-49. <back to text>
  1. From Gilmore's Web site, at
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  1. "internet.l@w/europe.96, held February 13, 1996, at the Tropen Institute and hosted by the law firm Trenité Van Doorne. <back to text>


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