Weeksville was founded by African American entrepreneurs after slavery ended in New York State in 1827. Located in eastern Brooklyn, Weeksville provided a space of physical safety, economic prosperity, education, and even political power for its black population, who organized churches, a school, orphan asylum, home for the aged, newspapers, and the national African Civilization Society. Notable residents of Weeksville, such as journalist and educator Junius P. Morell, participated in every major national effort for African American rights, including the Civil War.
Drawing on maps, newspapers, census records, photographs, and the material culture of buildings and artifacts, Wellman reconstructs the social history and national significance of this extraordinary place. Through the lens of this local community, Brooklyn’s Promised Land highlights themes still relevant to African Americans across the country.
List of Illustrations ix
Introduction: Brooklyn’s Promised Land, Weeksville, 1 1835–1910: “A Model for Places of Much Greater Pretensions”
1. “Here Will We Take Our Stand”: Weeksville’s Origins, 13 from Slavery to Freedom, 1770–1840
2. “Owned and Occupied by Our Own People”: Weeksville’s 49 Growth: Family, Work, and Community, 1840–1860
3. “Shall We Fly or Shall We Resist?”: From Emigration to the 97 Civil War, 1850–1865
4. “Fair Schools, a Fine Building, Finished Writers, Strong 137 Minded Women”: Politics, Women’s Activism, and the Roots of Progressive Reform, 1865–1910
5. “Cut Through and Gridironed by Streets”: Physical Changes, 183 1860–1880
6. “Part of This Magically Growing City”: Weeksville’s Growth 211 and Disappearance, 1880–1910
7. “A Seemingly Viable Neighborhood That No Longer Exists”: 226 Weeksville, Lost and Found, 1910–2010
About the Author 295
Maps appear as an insert following page 136.
"A comprehensive history of Weeksville, Brooklyn’s nineteenth and early twentieth century free black community, is long overdue. Judith Wellman’s meticulously researched and clearly written social history finally charts this story through the lives of teachers, ministers, activists, a woman doctor, and ordinary citizens. What an important contribution to the lexicon of books on New York, African American history, and the history of the preservation of African American historic sites and museums."-Gretchen Sullivan Sorin,Distinguished Professor, State University of NY College at Oneonta
"Fascinating and meticulously researched. . . . It highlights the experiences of a community founded on black nationalist principles during a time of instability in American race relations, and it highlights the power of blacks in carving out their own community in Brooklyn."-Jane Dabel,California State University, Long Beach
"Not a novel, but nevertheless a fascinating story of Weeksville, the little-known community of free blacks in what is today Crown Heights. Nearly lost to demolition, Weeksville was rediscovered in 1966 and is today home to several restored houses and a handsome new welcome center. Wellman tells the whole story, from the village’s roots in the 1830s to its near fall into oblivion in the late 20th century."-Newsweek.com
"Brooklyn's Promised Land is local history at its best. It sheds light on the politics, family life, and economic strivings of a remarkable independent black community all but lost to history."-Eric Foner,DeWitt Clinton Professor of History, Columbia University
"In this fascinating and groundbreaking book, Judith Wellman opens wide a window on not just one long-forgotten community of black New Yorkers, but also more broadly upon the diverse, sometimes surprisingly successful lives of urban African Americans in the nineteenth century. Rooted in fine-grained research, written with grace and a fine eye for the telling detail, this book should serve be a model for historians struggling to wrest the realities of antebellum black life from scant documentary records, and the willful forgetting of the larger society."-Fergus M. Bordewich,author of America's Great Debate
“In Brooklyn’s Promised Land: The Free Black Community of Weeksville, New York, Judith Wellman, an emeritus professor at the State University of New York at Oswego, reanimates this black nationalist enclave in the borough’s eastern Beford Hills, which by the Civil War had more than 500 residents.”-New York Times
“The author uses a variety of sources and biography to paint a multifaceted picture of Weeksville—an important symbol of African Americans’ struggle for equality and justice during a time when the nation did not want them to have either.”-The Journal of American History
“Judith Wellman has skillfully demonstrated how the success of her subjects transcends their important local history and enriches our understanding of free black life in nineteenth-century America.
Brooklyn’s Promised Land is a welcome addition to the growing literature on free African Americans in the U.S. and New York in particular, and merits a place on the shelf of any serious student of antebellum black life.”-American Historical Review